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Study Reveals ‘Second Brain’ Fixing Type 2 Diabetes

Study Reveals 'Second Brain' Fixing Type 2 Diabetes
Credit: NCCMED

Type 2 diabetes is an underlying condition for various diseases. Therefore, it is a matter of concern for the scientists to come up with more efficient methods. Recent research makes it evident that the gut’s nervous system influences the metabolism of glucose in the body. The findings of the study open the gate to new drug therapy for type 2 diabetes.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 30 million people in the United States are type 2, diabetes patients.

Type 2 diabetes renders the cells of the body to become less sensitive to respond to signals from insulin. Insulin is a hormone responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels within the normal range.

Type 2 Diabetes Serving As An Underlying Disease 

Insulin resistance hinders the regulation of glucose levels in the blood. The low sensitivity to insulin leads to the inability of the cells to keep the blood glucose concentration within limits, usually after the consumption of food.

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High blood glucose concentration damages the body tissues. Thus, it is essential to treat type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, high glucose levels lead to more complications affecting the vital organs of the body. High sugar levels lead to chronic diseases, loss of vision, and kidney diseases. 

Nailing the disease requires strong determination and steadfastness. Changes in the diet may control blood glucose concentration, hence treating type 2 diabetes. 

Moreover, making workouts a part of your routine aids in improving the health of the patient. Thus, a healthy lifestyle is vital in improving the symptoms and keeping the disease under control.  

Treatment Regimen For Diabetes

Numerous drug therapies are out there, but none are devoid of the harmful side effects. Common side effects of the drugs used for type 2 diabetes include nausea and diarrhea. 

Moreover, antidiabetics are available in injectable forms. This route of administration comes hand in hand with numerous anaphylactic reactions and calls for a trained person to inject the drug in the right way.

Therefore, scientists are in the urge to discover an oral alternative to the injectable drugs for type 2 diabetes. On account of the effectiveness and minimum side effects of oral drug therapy, scientists prioritized oral administration.

Scientists from the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, or INSERM, in Toulouse, consider themselves closer to developing such a formulary. 

Friendly bacteria

The study makes evident that friendly gut bacteria, the normal flora in the gut, aids in improving blood glucose metabolism by the formation of fat and lipid molecules.

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The lipid molecules formed by the gut bacteria influence the gut-brain axis, which serves as a bridge in communicating the brain and the gut’s nervous system, the enteric nervous system. The highly developed nervous system of the gut is also known as the second brain. 

Type 2 diabetes devastates the communication between the gut and the brain. The breakdown causes the failure of signal transmission from the brain to the liver, muscles, and fat tissue after the consumption of food.

Consequently, excess glucose is not absorbed from the bloodstream, ultimately leading to insulin resistance. 

Moreover, the normal physiology of the duodenum involves smooth muscle relaxation. However, in type 2 diabetes patients, the permanent contraction of these muscles abstains from signal transmission. 

Scientists believe friendly gut bacteria are vital for reversing the permanent contraction of smooth muscles in the duodenum. Added to that, these bacteria aid in improving glucose metabolism.

Friendly gut bacteria feed on nutrients called prebiotics. Carbohydrates, particularly fructooligosaccharides (FOS), help in promoting the growth of bacteria. The bacteria thereby, producing various lipid molecules ultimately, improves the metabolism of glucose. 

However, these lipid molecules still require more exploration.

About the author

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Adeena Tariq Lari

The author is a graduate of dental surgery from the Dow University Health Sciences, Karachi. She has an academic background in content writing as well as English literature, giving her an edge in the field. Adeena is always curious about physical and mental health. She is always passionate about research and delivering high-quality reliable content to users.

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