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Blood Replacement Can Actually Reverse Brain Stroke – Study Says

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Credit: The nerve blog

The World Health Organization reports 15 million people suffer from a stroke every year. Out of which 5 million people become paralyzed, another 5 million lose their lives. 

It is evident from recent research in the journal Nature Communications that the introduction of healthy blood in mice may enhance or suppress the blood components. This can assist us in curing damage which was previously perceived as irreparable.

When the brain is deficient in blood supply, the individual suffers a stroke. Blood deficiency in the brain is due to the presence of a blood clot, or blood vessel rupture. Therefore, it results in a lack of oxygen as well as other nutrients. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid complications and fatalities. However, it may not be easy to deal with stroke-complications.

The Deathly Effects Of A Stroke

The occurrence of a stroke initiates the immune system activation, and hence the messenger molecules diffuse through the blood-brain barrier. Messenger molecules aid in the localization of the immune cells in the affected area of the brain. In most scenarios, neutrophils appear first in the damaged area. These immune cells enhance the level of MMP-9.

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The MMP-9 is an enzyme responsible for the destruction of the blood-brain barrier, allowing the diffusion of immune cells and messenger molecules into the brain at a larger rate. Occasionally, the body enriches the blood with a large number of immune cells, particularly cytokines.

Cytokines are inflammation-causing immune cells in the body. The body flooded with cytokine results in the destruction of brain tissue near the site of damage. Thus, inflammation and brain damage occurs to a large extent.

Unveiling  More About Stroke

Scientists at West Virginia University researched mouse models in the urge to explore more about stroke. The study began with the stimulation of an ischemic stroke in the models, then clearing the stroke after a 90 minutes interval. These mice models later categorized into two groups: one group got their blood replaced, the other was a control group.

Blood replacements took place six to seven hours after the stroke. The blood replacement involves the injection of 250 to 500 microliters of blood from healthy donor mice. Therefore, about 10% to 20% of the total blood volume inject into the experimental mice.

After an hour, the scientists proceeded to examine the brain of the mice model, thus observing the extent of destruction in the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, scientists observed the magnitude of brain tissue damage after 24 hours of treatment.

Blood Replacement Bearing Promise

The scientists compared the observations of mice with blood replacement therapy with the control models to illustrate the results. The findings of the study make it evident that the mice models with blood replacement therapy have a reduction in illness as well as cognitive defects. The results state that blood replacement therapy declines the amount of brain destruction by 70% to 80%.  

To ensure the findings, scientists injected the blood of other stroke-suffering mice. However, it gave no outstanding results. Therefore, declaring healthy blood as the key element.

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The success of blood replacement opens the door towards investigating the exact components of the blood, responsible for the fruitful results. Further interrogation enlightens the weakening of the immune system on the arrival of healthy blood into the body of the mice. In addition to it, blood replacement causes a decline in the level of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and Lymphocytes in the mice’s blood. Moreover, healthy blood injection has a good impact on the blood-brain barrier, as levels of chemokines, cytokines and MMP-9 are low.

The Way Forward

Researchers are keen to identify the vital components in healthy blood responsible for decreasing the degradation of blood-brain barriers. It will enable doctors to target the main blood component hence reduce or increase its level directly. 

About the author

Adeena Tariq Lari

The author is a graduate of dental surgery from the Dow University Health Sciences, Karachi. She has an academic background in content writing as well as English literature, giving her an edge in the field. Adeena is always curious about physical and mental health. She is always passionate about research and delivering high-quality reliable content to users.

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